The Project “Bank Account Management System” is an application for maintaining a person’s account in a bank. In this project I tried to show the working of a banking account system and cover the basic functionality of a Bank Account Management System. To develop a project for solving financial applications of a customer in banking environment in order to nurture the needs of an end banking user by providing various ways to perform banking tasks. Also to enable the user’s work space to have additional functionalities which are not provided under a conventional banking project. The Bank Account Management System undertaken as a project is based on relevant technologies. The main aim of this project is to develop software for Bank Account Management System. This project has been developed to carry out the processes easily and quickly, which is not possible with the manuals systems, which are overcome by this software. This project is developed using PHP, HTML language and MYSQL use for database connection. Creating and managing requirements is a challenge of IT, systems and product development projects or indeed for any activity where you have to manage a contractual relationship. Organization need to effectively define and manage requirements to ensure they are meeting needs of the customer, while proving compliance and staying on the schedule and within budget. The impact of a poorly expressed requirement can bring a business out of compliance or even cause injury or death. Requirements definition and management is an activity that can deliver a high, fast return on investment. The project analyzes the system requirements and then comes up with the requirements specifications. It studies other related systems and then come up with system specifications. The system is then designed in accordance with specifications to satisfy the requirements. The system design is then implemented with MYSQL, PHP and HTML. The system is designed as an interactive and content management system. The content management system deals with data entry, validation confirm and updating whiles the interactive system deals with system interaction with the administration and users. Thus, above features of this project will save transaction time and therefore increase the efficiency of the system.
A bank is a financial institution which accepts deposits, pays interest on pre-defined rates, clears checks, makes loans, and often acts as an intermediary in financial transactions. It also provides other financial services to its customers.
Bank management governs various concerns associated with bank in order to maximize profits. The concerns broadly include liquidity management, asset management, liability management and capital management. We will discuss these areas in later chapters.
Origin of Banks
The origin of bank or banking activities can be traced to the Roman empire during the Babylonian period. It was being practiced on a very small scale as compared to modern day banking and frame work was not systematic.
Modern banks deal with banking activities on a larger scale and abide by the rules made by the government. The government plays a crucial role with its control over the banking system. This calls for bank management, which further ensures quality service to customers and a win-win situation between the customer, the banks and the government.
Scheduled & Non-Scheduled Banks
Scheduled and non-scheduled banks are categorized by the criteria or eligibility setup by the governing authority of a particular region. The following are the basic differences between scheduled and nonscheduled banks in the Indian banking perspective.
Scheduled banks are those that have paid-up capital and deposits of an aggregate value of not less than rupees five lakhs in the Reserve Bank of India. All their banking businesses are carried out in India. Most of the banks in India fall in the scheduled bank category.
Non-scheduled banks are the banks with reserve capital of less than five lakh rupees. There are very few banks that fall in this category.
Evolution of Banks
Banking system has evolved from barbaric banking where commodities were loaned to modern day banking system, which caters to a range of financial services. The evolution of banking system was gradual with growth in each and every aspect of banking. Some of the major changes which took place are as follows −
- Barter system replaced by money which made transaction uniform
- Uniform laws were setup to increase public trust
- Centralized banks were setup to govern other banks
- Book keeping was evolved from papers to digital format with the introduction of computers
- ATMs were setup for easier withdrawal of funds
- Internet banking came into existence with development of internet
Banking system has witnessed unprecedented growth and will be undergoing it in future too with the advancement in technology.
Growth of Banking System in India
The journey of banking system in India can be put into three different phases based on the services provided by them. The entire evolution of banking can be described in these distinct phases −
This was the early phase of banking system in India from 1786 to 1969. This period marked the establishment of Indian banks with more banks being set up. The growth was very slow in this phase and banking industry also experienced failures between 1913 to 1948.
The Government of India came up with the banking Companies Act in 1949. This helped to streamline the functions and activities of banks. During this phase, public had lesser confidence in banks and post offices were considered more safe to deposit funds.
This phase of banking was between 1969 to 1991, there were several major decisions being made in this phase. In 1969, fourteen major banks were nationalized. Credit Guarantee Corporation was created in 1971. This helped people avail loans to set up businesses.
In 1975, regional rural banks were created for the development of rural areas. These banks provided loans at lower rates. People started having enough faith and confidence on the banking system, and there was a plunge in the deposits and advances being made.
This phase came into existence from 1991. The year 1991 marked the beginning of liberalization, and various strategies were implemented to ensure quality service and improve customer satisfaction.
The ongoing phase witnessed the launch of ATMs which made cash withdrawals easier. This phase also brought in Internet banking for easier financial transactions from any part of world. Banks have been making attempts to provide better services and make financial transactions faster and efficient.
Creating a clear and unambiguous background of a project is one of the most important actions to be taken at the very beginning to ensure success of the project at the end. The clearer the background is, the more accurately and understandably the project will be spelled out. Below I give a definition of project background.
A Project’s Background is a formal document containing a common description of what is expected to be done within the project, what prerequisites for the project are, and how to produce the expected amount of work. The document is to be created prior to the implementation process to make a foundation for further goal setting and implementation.
When you develop a background document for your project initiative, you need to regard the following information:
- Primary focus (what is to be addressed by the project)
- A list of prerequisites and key reasons for launch
- A very common description of how to perform the project
- A plain explanation of the desired outcome
Designing a background document for a project is usually a duty of the project manager. This person considers the information to create a comprehensive background. Along with the document the manager needs to develop a description specifying more information about the project, as compared to the background document.
1.2 Business Requirement Analysis: It is a Stock Storage department related to Reliance Industries which sells different items to the public through their retail outlets like Reliance Fresh, Reliance Foot Wear etc. Since the company needs to maintain all their goods and items at a separate storage area which requires separate department also for tracking the details related to in and outs of all godowns. The in and out’s will henceforth be referred to as inwards and outwards. Prior to storage of goods this department has to manage different godowns, productwise stocks in each godown, inwards and outwards of each godown. It has to hold the details of all gowdowns like godown id, godown location, capacity in quintals, godown manager and start date. Whenever a product comes into a particular godown then the details like Godown ID, Name of the Supplier, Date of Supply, Item Name, Invoice No, quantity, received by, receipt no and bill checked by need to be stored in the inwards register of the that godown by godown manager. Whenever stock comes out from the godown then the details like Godown ID, Item Name, Invoice No, Date of Supply, Date of delivery, Delivered to, Quantity, Purpose (Sale/Service), Receipt No, Bill Value, Bill Checked by need to be stored in the outwards register by the godown manager. Whenever a customer returns a stock to the godown then we need to check the reason for returning that item. If it is a damage then the details like Item Name, Date of delivery, date of return, Return Godown ID, Quanity, invoice no, returned by, receipt no, bill value and checked by needs to stored in returns register. If the reason is order cancelled then we need to update the stock no in that godown. Checking for particular inwards, outwards or returns entry info takes lot of time here. Thus the cycle is repeated for every day. Currently all the above activities are done manually. The process is a tedious one. To arrive at the Inwards, outwards or returns for items, data has to be gathered from various sources. Because of this errors are occurring in the process, which is leading to delayed deliveries to the customers. Some times because of the errors wrong products are sent out which have no requirement & thus a lot of money is being wasted in maintaining the stock. Automating such a process will not only eliminate the errors in the process, but also bring down the delivery times & make the company more competitive. So it was decided that an automated system should be developed to make the whole process simpler & easier.
project management objectives are the successful development of the project’s procedures of initiation, planning, execution, regulation and closure as well as the guidance of the project team’s operations towards achieving all the agreed upon goals within the set scope, time, quality and budget standards.
- Purpose, Scopes, and ApplicabilityPurpose
Learning Outcomes. Students will acquire the ability to make links across different areas of knowledge and to generate, develop and evaluate ideas and information so as to apply these skills to the project task. … Students will acquire collaborative skills through working in a team to achieve common goals
Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, features, functions, tasks, deadlines, and ultimately costs. In other words, it is what needs to be achieved and the work that must be done to deliver aproject.
APPLICABILITY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN SMEs: EVIDENCE FROM GREECE. Greek Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) are an important factor for the socio-economic development of the country. … Specifically it examines the level of applicability of project management techniques and tools by the enterprises.
When describing the achievement please take into account the following: Achievement is the most significant and immediate advantage of carrying out the project activities. Achievement is the change the project is aiming to achieve. Achievement is or will be delivered by the end of the project.
- Organization of Report
About Organization Report Structures.
An organization report structure is a method of grouping
business units forreporting purposes. It provides more flexibility
in using low-volume consolidations and FASTR reporting, enabling
you to display summary-to-detail income statement information.
CHAPTER 2: REQUIREMENTS AND ANALYSIS
2.1. Problem Definition
Various studies have focused on developing sustainable tourism strategies for different communities (Lacitignola, Petrosillo, Cataldi & Zurlini, 2007:192; Choi & Sirakaya, 2006:1275; Tepelus & Cordoba, 2005:135; Rigall-I-Torrent, 2007:2). Despite the extensive nature of these works, there is still a need to design community tourism strategies to orchestrate sustainable development in townships like Soshanguve. The imperative for such a strategy is prompted by the high unemployment rate in Soshanguve Township which currently stands at 36% among a population of 403140 inhabitants (Stats SA, 2013:V) and compounded by the lack of industries and economic opportunities in the community. This is even more true when taking into consideration the growing appetite for township
System analysis involves examining the business situation through which it is determined how to find a solution for a problem or develop a system successfully. This activity involves breaking the total development process in to smaller activities or phases that the actual task may be done in a smooth manner. In order that a successful system may be designed, developed and implemented, there is a great need and importance of defining a problem, so that the solution may be ascertained accordingly.
This leads to the phase of system investigation. The phase of system investigation involves defining the problem clearly. In order that it may be done as conveniently as possible, an analyst or a consultant is invited, so that the user can define the problem of which, at a later stage, the solution may be ascertained. This phase involves determining whether there is a need for developing a completely new system or the existing system can be modified or improved. It’s just a preliminary stage which describes the business system. In this way, preliminary investigation is the first step in the system development project. tourism. Furthermore the Soshanguve community has iconic resources for tourism, such as the Tswaing meteorite crater and ecological resort, a rich cultural heritage and a captivating struggle history. Lastly, the City of Tshwane tourism division has a plan produced in 2005 to develop Soshanguve as a unique tourism destination that has not been implemented. It is against this background that the core problem for this research emanates. The problem under investigation is the huge burden of unemployment, poverty and social deprivation faced by residents of Soshanguve and other townships, while opportunities exist in the tourism industry to address their economic, socio-cultural and environmental challenges.
2.2. Requirements Specification
A software requirements specification (SRS) is a description of a software system to be developed. It is modeled after business requirements specification (CONOPS), also known as a stakeholder requirements specification (StRS).The software requirements specification lays out functional and non-functional requirements, and it may include a set of use cases that describe user interactions that the software must provide.
Software requirements specification establishes the basis for an agreement between customers and contractors or suppliers on how the software product should function (in a market-driven project, these roles may be played by the marketing and development divisions). Software requirements specification is a rigorous assessment of requirements before the more specific system design stages, and its goal is to reduce later redesign. It should also provide a realistic basis for estimating product costs, risks, and schedules.Used appropriately, software requirements specifications can help prevent software project failure.
The software requirements specification document lists sufficient and necessary requirements for the project development.To derive the requirements, the developer needs to have clear and thorough understanding of the products under development. This is achieved through detailed and continuous communications with the project team and customer throughout the software development process
2.3 Planning and Scheduling
Planning and Scheduling Planning and scheduling are research as well as application areas that have quite a lot of interdependencies to configuration. Therefore, both will be described here and the relations to configuration will be shown. From this we see the need for a regular exchange of ideas between the groups working on these topics. As a consequence, a GI1 special interest group covers the areas of planning, scheduling, design and configuration (PuK)2 . Planning and scheduling have common subjects but also differ in some ways. Both rely on activities that have to be performed in order to achieve given goals. All the activities need resources and a set of constraints has to be observed in order to get valid solutions. Sometimes even a definition of optimality for the solution is given. The result of both planning and scheduling is often called a plan, but we will differentiate between plan and schedule. One of the main differences between planning and scheduling is the use of temporal issues. Scheduling in nearly all cases has to deal with concrete temporal assignments of activities to resources, whereas planning mainly deals with the order in which the activities have to be performed, i.e. planning focuses on ”what has to be done” whereas scheduling focuses on ”when this has to be done”
The task of planning is to find control algorithms that enable agents of all kinds (robots, humans, machines etc.) to synthesize courses of action that achieve their goals [1, 2, 4]. Generally, for the definition of a planning problem one needs a description of the initial world, a description of the goals – i.e. the situation of the world to be achieved, and a set of possible actions that can be performed and lead to changed situations. The plan as the output of the planning process then shows the sequence of actions to be executed in order to achieve the desired goal. Research develops formalisms for an effective modeling of the situations and actions and for the implementation of planning algorithms that solve planning problems at hand. Widely used is a representation based on logic and algorithms for efficiently searching the combinatorial search space. Most of the systems developed are domain-independent and therefore allow planning in different application areas. Application areas of planning range from process and project planning (e.g. ship building, shuttle maintenance etc.) to special problems like elevator control. Very popular are the planning systems competitions held in conjunction with the AIPS (AI Planning Systems Conference) which is one of the main forums on the subjects of AI planning and scheduling.
Main task of scheduling is the creation of schedules, which are temporal assignments of activities to resources where a number of goals and constraints have to be regarded . The order of activities can be an output of a planning system. For the definition of a scheduling problem we therefore need the activities to be scheduled, the resources to be used by these activities and constraints (e.g. technical restrictions on the use of resources that must be regarded or economical constraints) that should be fulfilled, e.g. reducing the cost of inventory. Additionally, goal functions are often used to compare solutions or to find ”optimal” solutions. Scheduling problems can be found in several different application areas, e.g. the scheduling of production operations in manufacturing industry, computer processes in operating systems, truck movements in transportation, aircraft crews, etc. Research develops algorithms that find or create schedules of the activities over a longer period. This is called predictive scheduling and assumes a stable environment. In real world scheduling scenarios this is hardly the case, so the other important task of scheduling is the adaptation of an existing schedule due to actual events in a dynamic environment, e.g. breakdowns of resources or changing demands for products. This is called reactive scheduling and up to now often ceded to human schedulers who have to repair the schedules using their knowledge and experience in the particular domain. Most scheduling systems rely on rule- and constraint-based representation of scheduling knowledge and for the creation, respectively adaptation, of schedules, all kinds of AI problem solving approaches have been investigated. Most popular are heuristics and constraint-based approaches, but we also find genetic algorithms, iterative improvement strategies, fuzzy systems, neural networks and case-based reasoning approaches.
2.4 Software and Hardware Requirement
Front End Client:
The system is a web based application clients are requiring using modern web browser such as Mozilla Firefox 1.5, PHP.
* Web Server:
The web application will be hosted on one of the apache server.
* Back End:
We use backend as MY SQL.
Various interfaces for the product could be
1. Touch screen/Monitor
3. Continuous battery backup
4. Printer which can produce the hard copy.
5. Interface that connects the device to bank’s computer.
6. An interface that can count currency notes.
| 2.5 Preliminary Product Description Visual Basic is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on the Framework. Microsoft launched VB.NET in 2002 as the successor to its original Visual Basic language. Although the “.NET” portion of the name was dropped in 2005, this article uses “Visual Basic [.NET]” to refer to all Visual Basic languages releases since 2002, in order to distinguish between them and the classic Visual Basic. Along with Visual C#, it is one of the two main languages targeting the .NET framework. Microsoft’s integrated development environment (IDE) for developing in Visual Basic .NET language is Visual Studio. Most Visual Studio editions are commercial; the only exceptions are Visual Studio Express and Visual Studio Community, which are freeware. In addition, the .NET Framework SDK includes a freeware command-line compiler called vbc.exe. Mono also includes a command-line VB.NET compiler. VB.NET uses statements to specify actions. The most common statement is an expression statement, consisting of an expression to be evaluated, on a single line. As part of that evaluation, functions or subroutines may be called and variables may be assigned new values. To modify the normal sequential execution of statements, VB.NET provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords. Structured programming is supported by several constructs including two conditional execution constructs (If … Then … Else … End If and Select Case … Case … End Select ) and three iterative execution (loop) constructs (Do … Loop, For … To, and For Each) . The For … To statement has separate initialisation and testing sections, both of which must be present. (See examples below.) The For Each statement steps through each value in a list. In addition, in Visual Basic .NET: There is no unified way of defining blocks of statements. Instead, certain keywords, such as “If … Then” or “Sub” are interpreted as starters of sub-blocks of code and have matching termination keywords such as “End If” or “End Sub”. Statements are terminated either with a colon (“:”) or with the end of line. Multiple line statements in Visual Basic .NET are enabled with ” _” at the end of each such line. The need for the underscore continuation character was largely removed in version 10 and later versions. The equals sign (“=”) is used in both assigning values to variables and in comparison. Round brackets (parentheses) are used with arrays, both to declare them and to get a value at a given index in one of them. Visual Basic .NET uses round brackets to define the parameters of subroutines or functions. A single quotation mark (‘), placed at the beginning of a line or after any number of space or tab characters at the beginning of a line, or after other code on a line, indicates that the (remainder of the) line is a comment. Comparison with the classic Visual Basic Main article: Comparison of Visual Basic and Visual Basic .NET Whether Visual Basic .NET should be considered as just another version of Visual Basic or a completely different language is a topic of debate. There are new additions to support new features, such as structured exception handling and short-circuited expressions. Also, two important data-type changes occurred with the move to VB.NET: compared to Visual Basic 6, the Integer data type has been doubled in length from 16 bits to 32 bits, and the Long data type has been doubled in length from 32 bits to 64 bits. This is true for all versions of VB.NET. A 16-bit integer in all versions of VB.NET is now known as a Short. Similarly, the Windows Forms editor is very similar in style and function to the Visual Basic form editor. The things that have changed significantly are the semantics—from those of an object-based programming language running on a deterministic, reference-counted engine based on COM to a fully object-oriented language backed by the .NET Framework, which consists of a combination of the Common Language Runtime (a virtual machine using generational garbage collection and a just-in-time compilation engine) and a far larger class library. The increased breadth of the latter is also a problem that VB developers have to deal with when coming to the language, although this is somewhat addressed by the My feature in Visual Studio 2005. The changes have altered many underlying assumptions about the “right” thing to do with respect to performance and maintainability. Some functions and libraries no longer exist; others are available, but not as efficient as the “native” .NET alternatives. Even if they compile, most converted Visual Basic 6 applications will require some level of refactoring to take full advantage of the new language. Documentation is available to cover changes in the syntax, debugging applications, deployment and terminology. 2.6 Conceptual Models A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents. It is also a set of concepts. Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents. The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models which are formed after a conceptualization or generalization process. Conceptual models are often abstractions of things in the real world whether physical or social. Semantic studies are relevant to various stages of concept formation. Semantics is basically about concepts, the meaning that thinking beings give to various elements of their experience A conceptual model’s primary objective is to convey the fundamental principles and basic functionality of the system which it represents. Also, a conceptual model must be developed in such a way as to provide an easily understood system interpretation for the models users. A conceptual model, when implemented properly, should satisfy four fundamental objectives. Enhance an individual’s understanding of the representative systemFacilitate efficient conveyance of system details between stakeholdersProvide a point of reference for system designers to extract system specificationsDocument the system for future reference and provide a means for collaboration The conceptual model plays an important role in the overall system development life cycle. Figure 1 below, depicts the role of the conceptual model in a typical system development scheme. It is clear that if the conceptual model is not fully developed, the execution of fundamental system properties may not be implemented properly, giving way to future problems or system shortfalls. These failures do occur in the industry and have been linked to; lack of user input, incomplete or unclear requirements, and changing requirements. Those weak links in the system design and development process can be traced to improper execution of the fundamental objectives of conceptual modeling. The importance of conceptual modeling is evident when such systemic failures are mitigated by thorough system development and adherence to proven development objectives/techniques. |
3.3 Database Design: 3.3.1 Database Tables: The total number of database tables that were identified to build the system is 7. The major part of the Database is categorized as • Transactional components: The Transactional components are useful in recording the transactions made by the system. All the inwards, deliveries, returns etc information handled by these components • Data Dictionary components: These components are used to store the major information like Employee details, Godown details, Customer details, Items information etc. • General components: These components are used to store the general information like login information etc.
4.1 System Design: 4.1.1 Users: The major functionality of this product is divided into two categories. 1. Administrative User Functions. 2. Normal User Functions. 4.1.2 Administrative User Functions: Administrators can perform the following task • Create new users • Change the password • Add/Update the details of Employees of the Company • Add the information about the Godowns • Can view the information about the Inwards • Can view the information about the Deliveries • Can view the information about the Returns • Can view/generate management reports 4.1.3 Normal User Functions: Normal users can perform the following task • Change the password • View the details of Employees of the Company • View information of different Godowns • Can add the information about the Inwards • Can add the information about the Deliveries • Can add the information about the Returns • Can view management reports
3.1 Basic Modulus
This section provides the functional overview of the product. The project will require the PHP as a front end and at the back end the database MYSQL will be running. Various functional modules that can be implemented by the product will be
3. Get balance information
4. Withdrawal of money
5. Transfer Money
6. Customer info.
Customer logins by entering customer name & a login pin.
When a customer enters the ATM card, its validity must be ensured. Then customer is allowed to enter the valid PIN. The validation can be for following conditions
Validation for lost or stolen card
When card is already reported as lost or stolen
then the message “Lost/Stolen card!!!”.
Validation for card’s expiry date
If the card inserted by the customer has crossed the expiry date then the system will prompt
Validation for PIN
After validating the card, the validity of PIN must be ensured. If he/she fails to enter valid code for three times then the card will not be returned to him. That means the account can be locked. The counter for number of logins must be maintained
Get balance information:
This system must be networked to the bank’s computer. The updated
database of every customer is maintained with bank. Hence the balance information of every account is available in the database and can be displayed to the customer.
3.3 Payment of Money:
A customer is allowed to enter the amount which he/she wishes to withdraw. If the entered amount is less than the available balance and if after withdraw if the minimum required balance is maintained then allow the transaction.
3.4 Transfer of Money:
The customer can deposit or transfer the desired amount of money.
3.5 Transaction Report:
The bank statement showing credit and debit information of corresponding account must be printed by the machine.
3.6 Technical Issues
This product will work on client-server architecture. It will require an internet server and which will be able to run PHP applications. The product should support some commonly used browsers such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox.
4. Interface Requirements
This is interface must be highly intuitive or interactive because there will not be an assistance for the user who is operating the System. At most of the places help desk should be provided for users convenience. The screens appearing should be designed in such a manner that it can draw User attaraction towards the new plans for the customers.
Also the pin and password confidentiality should be maintained,
This can be done by using asterisks at the password panel.
Proper security messages should be displayed at most of the places.
3.2 Data Design
Definition: Systems design is the
process of defining elements of a system like modules, architecture, components
and their interfaces and data for a system based on the specified requirements.
It is the process of defining, developing and designing systems which satisfies
the specific needs and requirements of a business or organization.
Description: A systemic approach is required for a coherent and well-running system. Bottom-Up or Top-Down approach is required to take into account all related variables of the system. A designer uses the modelling languages to express the information and knowledge in a structure of system that is defined by a consistent set of rules and definitions. The designs can be defined in graphical or textual modelling languages.
Some of the examples of graphical modelling languages are
a. Unified Modelling Language (UML): To describe software both structurally and behaviourally with graphical notation.
b. Flowchart : A schematic or stepwise representation of an algorithm.
c. Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN): Used for Process Modelling language.
d. Systems Modelling Language (SysML): Used for systems engineering.
1) Architectural design: To describes the views, models, behaviour, and structure of the system.
2) Logical design: To represent the data flow, inputs and outputs of the system. Example: ER Diagrams (Entity Relationship Diagrams).
3) Physical design: Defined as a) How users add information to the system and how the system represents information back to the user. b) How the data is modelled and stored within the system. c) How data moves through the system, how data is validated, secured and/or transformed as it flows through and out of the system.
4.3.6 REPORTING MODULE: This module used to provide reports required by the higher management. It provides a facility to generate dynamic reports like information about the godown, monthly inwards, monthly deliveries, monthly returns and stock statements very easily the existing system as it is in the proposed system.
3.2.1. Schema Design
If you tried to build a house without blueprints, you would quickly run into serious problems. The same is true for databases. If a major online retailer had no schema, or blueprint, for its massive amount of data, the online retail giant would quickly find itself out of business.
Let’s review the schema. A full database schema is actually a physical schema and a logical schema. The physical schema displays the hardware, servers, and connections that need to be set up to install the database. A logical schema is the structure of the data itself. This is what programmers, database administrators, and end users will be working with.
Below is a graphic of the schema, showing physical and logical. We will consider a database that holds information about music such as albums, artists, and reviews. To keep it simple, the schema snapshot below shows just one of the tables.
Designing a Schema
What other types of data will we store in our music database? We’ll want a table for artist data, album data, genres, and reviews. A true music database will be much larger, but let’s keep things simple. Also, at one point we will be normalizingthe data, that is reducing redundant data among the tables.
In order to keep tables and fields organized, we’ll prefix all table names with tbl. Therefore, we can come up with the following tables:
|Table Name||Primary Key(s)||Other fields|
|tblAlbum||albumID||artistID, albumTitle, releaseDate, genreID|
We have good information, but so far, no logical schema or blueprint. These are just table names. Let’s get to building a blueprint. Remember, at this point, we are NOT dealing with actual data. Don’t start populating data until you design the schema! Design the schema first and make sure it will meet your needs. It is much harder to make changes to a database structure once you start populating data.
Proposed System: Proposed system is a software application which avoids more manual hours that need to spend in record keeping and generating reports. This application keeps the data in a centralized way which is available to all the users simultaneously. It is very easy to manage historical data in database. No specific training is required for the employees to use this application. They can easily use the tool that decreases manual hours spending for normal things and hence increases the performance. As the data is centralized it is very easy to maintain the stocks of the various items in all godowns. 2.2.1 Advantages: The following are the advantages of proposed system • Easy to manage all the daily transactions • Can generate required reports easily • Easy to manage historical data in a secure manner • Centralized database helps in avoiding conflicts • Easy to use GUI that does not requires specific training.
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.1 Test Reports
Test summary report is a document which contains summary of test activities and final test results.
After the testing cycle it is very important that you communicate the test results and findings to the project stakeholders so that decisions can be made for the software release. i.e. If further testing is required and we need to delay the release.
Test summary report will be different for different kind of testing. Suppose you are doing risk based testing your report should contain the test coverage and unresolved defects against the product risks, and if you are doing requirements based testing then your test summary report should measure coverage against the requirements.
5.2 User Documentation
In computer hardware and software product development, documentation is the information that describes the product to its users. It consists of the product technical manuals and online information (including online versions of the technical manuals and help facility descriptions). The term is also sometimes used to mean the source information about the product contained in design documents, detailed code comments, white papers, and blackboard session notes.
The term is derived from the idea that engineers and programmers “document” their products in formal writing. The earliest computer users were sometimes simply handed the engineers’ or programmers’ “documentation.” As the product audience grew, it became necessary to add professional technical writers and editors to the process. Today, IBM and other companies look at developing product information based on what users actually need to do when using the product. In this task-oriented view, product information can be divided into and sometimes physically organized into these task categories: evaluating, planning for, setting up or installing, customizing, administering, using, and maintaining the product. Documentation is now often built directly into the product as part of the user interface and in help pages. Printed technical manuals are increasingly available at company Web sites in the form of Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files or in HTML pages. IBM and Microsoft are among the world’s largest publishers.
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS
Banking systems have been with us for as long as
people have been using money. Banks and other financial institutions provide
security for individuals, businesses and governments, alike. Let’s recap what
has been learned with this tutorial:
In general, what banks do is pretty easy to figure out. For the average person banks accept deposits, make loans, provide a safe place for money and valuables, and act as payment agents between merchants and banks.
Banks are quite important to the economy and are involved in such economic activities as issuing money, settling payments, credit intermediation, maturity transformation and money creation in the form of fractional reserve banking.
To make money, banks use deposits and whole sale deposits, share equity and fees and interest from debt, loans and consumer lending, such as credit cards and bank fees.
In addition to fees and loans, banks are also involved in various other types of lending and operations including, buy/hold securities, non-interest income, insurance and leasing and payment treasury services.
History has proven banks to be vulnerable to many risks, however, including credit, liquidity, market, operating, interesting rate and legal risks. Many global crises have been the result of such vulnerabilities and this has led to the strict regulation of state and national banks.
However, other financial institutions exist that are not restricted by such regulations. Such institutions include: savings and loans, credit unions, investment and merchant banks, shadow banks, Islamic banks and industrial banks.
6.2 Existing System:
Existing System: Current system is a manual one in which users are maintaining ledgers, books etc to store the information like suppliers details, inwards, deliveries and returns of items in all godowns, customer details as well as employee details. It is very difficult to maintain historical data. Also regular investments need to purchase stationary every year. 2.1.1 Disadvantages: The following are the disadvantages of current system 1. It is difficult to maintain important information in books 2. More manual hours need to generate required reports 3. It is tedious to manage historical data which needs much space to keep all the previous years ledgers, books etc
4. Daily transactions are to be entering into different books immediately to avoid conflicts which are very difficult.
6.3 Future Scope of the Project REFERENCES APPENDIX
This document is the only one that describes the requirements of the system. It is meant for the use by the developers, and will also by the basis for validating the final delivered system. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through a formal change approval process. The developer is responsible for asking for clarifications, where necessary, and will not make any alterations without the permission of the client. The scope of this system to allow the stock management departments to manage gowdowns, inwards info, delivers info, order cancellation info, damages info and generate the reports dynamically by updating the info very effectively with user friendly screens.